The zebrafish has similar blood, kidney and optical systems to that of humans. Sequencing of the entire genetic make-up of the zebrafish has revealed that 70 per cent of protein-coding human genes are related to genes found in the zebrafish and that 84 per cent of genes known to be associated with human disease have a zebrafish counterpart. 2021, Dec Zebrafish is a popular model organism, which is widely used in developmental biology research. Zebrafish have a similar genetic structure to humans. Grow extremely fast, up to 30 times the rate of human embryos. Their quick growth, transparent embryos and, most importantly, genetic makeup, combine to make zebrafish an ideal model for research. This high degree of similarity has led to the broad use of zebrafish to study the structural, functional, and behavioral effects of toxic exposures on the human … The zebrafish genome has been sequenced to an unusually high standard. In fact, 70% of human genes are found in zebrafish . In addition, the zebrafish genome has unique features not observed in other vertebrates. A similar comparison identified at least one zebrafish orthologue for 3,075 (76%) of the 4,023 human genes implicated in genome wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we describe the Mutual Maximum Similarity (MMS) algorithm, a systematic classifier for assigning a human-centric nomenclature to any OR gene based on inter-species hierarchical pairwise similarities. The team identified 154 pseudogenes in the zebrafish genome, a fraction of the 13,000 or so pseudogenes found in the human genome. Due to the quality of the sequencing, scientists have successfully developed nearly 15,000 mutations in zebrafish models. Zebrafish have been widely used to understand how genes affect our health and development, and are recognised as a key model organism. The zebrafish genome contains few pseudogenes -- genes thought to have lost their function through evolution -- compared to the human genome. This is only one step in a complicated process, however: morphological changes and overexpressed fluorescent proteins in organs could be observed in the transparent embryos, but their effect on genes could not. As a vertebrate, the zebrafish has the same major organs and tissues as humans. Human and zebrafish genomes remarkably similar, Starfish-like fossil holds clues to evolutionary past, Video shows electric eels hunting in groups, Research shows reef fish larvae dispersed differently, DAN Publishes Guidelines for Lifelong Medical Fitness to Dive, DAN Answers FAQs About Returning to Diving, DAN Extends Liability Coverage 90 Days to Help Professionals and Businesses, DAN Announces New Cardiac Health Research Grant. Advancing the understanding of muscle and organ development, they have been utilized to verify the causal gene in muscular dystrophy disorders and to understand the evolution and formation of melanomas. At first glance it would seem that humans and zebrafish don’t have much in common at all. Similarly, although the zebrafish telencephalon is rudimentary compared to the mammalian cerebrum, zebrafish neuronal connections and neurological functions, including learning, memory, social behavior, and anxiety, are genetically and physiologically influenced in ways similar to that of humans (Kalueff et al., 2014, Newman et al., 2014, Matsui, 2017, Velkey et al., 2019). Synteny analysis indicated that the gene coding for P4 lies in a syntenic region with human genome on human chromosome 16 (Supplemental Figure 3). They share 70 per cent of genes with us. Subscription and downloads are free. There are two efficient screening methods which…, Transgenic animal models are an important tool…, As an animal model, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have…, Zebrafish Genome Compared to Human: How Are They Similar. The zebrafish reference genome sequence is annotated as part of the Ensembl project, and is maintained by the Genome Reference Consortium. In this article we’ll describe how the human genome compares to the zebrafish genome, and how these similarities benefit disease research. Finally, we use comparative mapping data to address the proposal that the common ancestor of vertebrates had a genome consisting of 12 chromosomes. 7) Zebrafish genes demonstrate on average greater than 75% similarity to human genes. The team identified 154 pseudogenes in the zebrafish genome, a fraction of the 13,000 or so pseudogenes found in the human genome. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism system for biomedical research. During screenings for mutations, zebrafish were identified as possible candidates for study as the mutations can create defects in organ systems similar to humans. Zebrafish may seem a strange model for research related to humans—they’re not mammals, they have no arms or legs, they have different breathing systems, they live underwater, etc. Zebrafish also have chromosomal regions which influence sex determination, another characteristic unique to the species. A result of our genome-wide comparison of orthologous genes' locations among medaka, zebrafish, and human, along with the evidence given above, strongly indicates that the genome amplification is not partial, but involved the whole genome, and occurred before the last common ancestor of euteleosts. As if zebrafish weren’t already ideal models, these mighty fish can also regenerate damaged heart tissue, meaning scientists can observe stages of growth. Some 84% of genes known to be associated with human disease have a zebrafish counterpart, highlighting the importance of zebrafish as a model organism for human disease research. Hopkins and her colleagues found that a gene called met, which is known to cause cancer, sits on a chromosome found in excess in zebrafish tumors.,Other researchers had previously observed met on a chromosome found in extra numbers in human cancer. 8) Comparative genomics using zebrafish and human gene maps has shown the existence of several blocks of synteny that existed in the common ancestor of … Completed in 2013 the zebrafish genome project discovered over 26,000 protein-coding genes, the most of any vertebrate sequenced. Smaller in size and prefer to live in close groups in large numbers making lab housing very efficient. Incidentally, scientists found zebrafish to share 70% of the genetic makeup of humans. MMS was applied to the OR repertoires of seven mammals and zebrafish. In a recent study published in Nature, researchers have identified 70% of protein-coding human genes to be related to genes found in zebrafish. This is why zebrafish offer a useful model for studying this phenomenon. Published since 2003. In addition, the majority of variants identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are found outside coding se… They are vertebrates, however and as previously mentioned zebrafish and humans share 70% of protein-coding genes. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(8093962, '9789a34a-4eb3-414f-a068-e90bdf90e361', {}); Due to the many similarities between zebrafish and human genes, these stripey swimmers have become key in Drug Discovery and translational research. 84 per cent of genes known to be associated with human disease have a zebrafish counterpart. About 20% of the gar genome is repetitive, including transposable elements (TEs) representing most lobe­finned and teleost TE superfamilies and a TE profile similar to that of coelacanth. 2020, Jan ZFIN curates zebrafish models of human diseases either when authors have stated them as such or when the intent of a publication is to report an aspect of a disease using zebrafish and there is sufficient evidence that the phenotypes observed are similar to the human patients. "This genome will help to uncover the biological processes responsible for common and rare disease and opens up exciting new avenues for disease screening and drug development," adds Dr Stemple. What’s more is that the zebrafish genome only contains 154 psuedogenes (genes that have lost function by way of evolution). While use of zebrafish as models began in the 1960’s, they swam to prominence in the 1990’s and 2000’s after a discovery related to gene mutation. What’s even more impressive is that 84% of human disease genes have zebrafish equivalents. Disruption of enhancer function has been shown to lead to abnormal gene expression and thus to disease (2–4). Due to this similarity, genes ex-pressed in human disease are also expressed by zebrafish, providing a platform to model Zebra fish genome 6)Analysis of gene maps shows that zebrafish chromosomes have conserved syntenies with large segments of human chromosomes. Although humans may appear to be extremely different than zebrafish, we are actually much more similar to them than you might think. At first glance, zebrafish may not seem very similar to people. Finally, we compare conserved syntenies between zebrafish, stickleback, spotted gar, and human to understand the timing of chromosome rearrangements in teleost genome evolution. Significant factors contributing to this success are external fertilization and transparent embryos, which allow scientists to observe growth and possible mutations in developing zebrafish; fluorescent dyes mark transgenic organs/tissues and make them easier to identify. Only two other genomes have been sequenced to such a high level: the mouse and the human genomes. In their Nature paper, the researchers reported that, at approximately 2.75 billion base pairs, the rat genome is smaller than the human genome, which is 2.9 billion base pairs, and slightly larger than mouse genome, which is 2.6 billion base pairs. In a three-way comparison between the genomes of zebrafish, Tetraodon, and human, our analysis delineates the gene content for 11 of these 12 proposed ancestral chromosomes. Jan This paper focuses on … Reasons why zebrafish are so special as a research model are complex when it comes to genetic similarities and differences. It is significant to see if the similarity observed between the two organisms at the gene sequence level is also observed at the expression level in key cell types … Furthermore, the zebrafish genome is fully sequenced and showed more than 70 % similarity with human genes at protein level reflected in drug response, as the protein comprising drug binding targets is similar [3]. Zebrafish is emerging as a model organism of choice to understand the etiology of human CHD. The advantages of zebrafish over classical vertebrate models are multifactorial and include high genetic and organ system homology to humans, high fecundity, external fertilization, ease of genetic manipulation, and transparency through early adulthood that enables powerful imaging modalities. It is clear however that we have much more in common than you might think. Moreover, zebrafish have two eyes, a mouth, brain, spinal cord, intestine, pancreas, liver, bile ducts, kidney, esophagus, heart, ear, nose, muscle, blood, bone, cartilage, and teeth. Launched by NIH’s National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), ENCODE has been building a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human and mouse genomes. The team identified 154 pseudogenes in the zebrafish genome, a fraction of the 13,000 or so pseudogenes found in the human genome. In 2009, researchers at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology in Delhi, India, announced the sequencing of the genome of a wild zebrafish strain, containing an estimated 1.7 billion genetic letters. The zebrafish genome has been sequenced to an unusually high standard. 11, Only two other genomes have been sequenced to such a high level: the mouse and the human genomes. Zebrafish genome yields significant similarity to human genome. 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